Compound leaves: needle-like

These include evergreens such as the Scots pine, yew, Douglas fir, the spruce as well as the larch (which is actually deciduous)

Scots pine:

It has red bark (particularly higher up the trunk). The bark is deeply fissured (see photograph). The trunk is long with a crown high up. The needles are paired and twisted together:

Scots pine fissured bark  01Scots pine 01



Sharp and spiky pointed leaves  eg Norway spruce and Sitka spruce



The Norway spruce (the usual Christmas tree) has just one white line on each side. The Sitka spruce has two.

European larch

It is unusual in that although it has needles and cones it is deciduous. It has 20-30 pointed needles in “rosettes”, springing from a short “spur” shoot:

Larch 01Larch 02



Pointed leaves, with horny point. Massive fluted trunk. Wood was used to make long-bows (but had to season the wood for 7 years)

Yes 01 Yew 02

Irish yew – needles arrange all the way around
Common yew – needles on each side, arranged horizontally


Douglas fir

Spirally arranged needles with “sucker-shaped” base if pulled 0ff



•Long needles in bundles
–In twos: Scots (twisted pairs), Corsican or Lodgepole (very long needles) pines
•Rosettes of numerous short needles
–Deciduous: larches
–Evergreen: Atlas, Deodar or Lebanon cedars
•Spirally arranged short needles:
Spruces, Firs, Yew, Redwood
•Scale-like leaves (all evergreen)
Cypress or  Western red cedar (fern-like sprays)
–Wellingtonia (cord-like growths)

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