Simple leaves: lobed

Oak trees

oak 01
Vertically grooved bark

Pedunculate (English) oak

Leaves have 3-6 lobes; leaf stalk very short (2-10 mm)
Crown widely spaced. Main root (“tap root”) extends down to approx the height of the tree (unlike the roots of the beech which spread horizontally).
Oak remains green for longer than many other deciduous trees.
common oak

Sessile (Durmast) oak

Leaves have 4-8 lobes; leaf stalk longer than in English oak, at 1-3 cm

Hungarian oak

Leaves almost fern-like: more lobes than pedunculate or sessile oaks – and deeply divided:
Hungarian oak

Insect galls on oak trees

Female gall wasp uses a long (needle-like) ovipositor to lay a single egg within an oak bud. Unidentified chemicals in the egg or substances injected with it, switch on a set of genes belonging to the tree. This, as a result, induces a tumour-like growth on the surface of the oak leaf. Each will contain a single gall wasp larva.
Common spangle gall
Found on the underside of oak leaves
Common spangle gall on oak 01
Silk button spangle gall
Often very numerous with over a thousand per oak leaf.
Silk button spangle gall on oak 01
Artichoke gall
Contains a small egg-shaped gall which contains a single wasp.
Artichoke gall on oak 01

Knopper gall beneath otherwise healthy acorn

For more information about galls and various insects, with superb photographs, visit


Hawthorn 01Hawthorn 02


Two adult hawthorn shield bugs on hawthorn leaves (autumn)


Insta of hawthorn shield bug on hawthorn leaf (autumn).

White poplar

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