Common beech (Fagus ovatica)
The leaves of this tree (see image below) have wavy margins but are not toothed or jagged. The bark is silver and smooth (unlike that of the silver birch which has dark scars, deep cracks and knobbly bumps)
Its leaves are about 15 cm in length and are pointed (with an elliptical shape).
Beech nuts enclosed in prickly cases
Rather like the leaves of beech trees – but with a fine-toothed edge to the leaves.
Wych elm (images shown below)
This is the commonest type of Elm that grows in the British Isles and is native and widespread (except in Northern Scotland and in the West of Ireland).
It has distinctive oval leaves with a rough texture on the upper surface to the touch (due to harsh hairs). Leaves have a jagged outline with a protruding point. Alternate arrangement. Asymmetric base near the stem with a little “ear” overlapping the stalk.
Bark becomes (vertically) ridged after 20 years. “Wych” means supple – the wood has been used in carriage building and in furniture.
Genetically varied (due to reproduction by seed) and is therefore resistant to Dutch Elm
Goat willow (Salix caprea)
Native to the British Isles. The name may originate in the first known illustration of the tree by Heironymus Bock (with a goat) in 1546.
Soft oval leaves (see below) with smooth edges or with small irregular teeth. Green/white. Alternate arrangement. Short leaf stalk, sometimes with two ear-like stipules (growths) at its base.
May be multi-trunked.